Business Loans: How Do They Work?

Business Loans: How Do They Work?

Business loans—words that might bring a sense of excitement, anxiety, or even confusion. A business loan could be your ticket to the next level or the knot in your stomach that keeps you up at night. According to the SBA, as of 2022, 33.2 million small businesses exist across the country, employing more than 61.5 million people. That’s a mountain of money! But what does it all mean for you, the business owner? Well, there’s only one way to find out.

What Is a Business Loan?

At its core, a business loan is simply a sum of money that is lent to a company with the expectation of repayment, typically with interest. This borrowed capital plays a crucial role in facilitating the growth of your business, allowing you to handle expenses that go beyond your current cash flow. Imagine expansion projects, acquiring new equipment, increasing inventory, or even having a safety net for unexpected business challenges.

Lenders, including banks, credit unions, and financial institutions, offer a wide range of loan options that are specifically designed to meet the unique needs of businesses like yours. Whether you’re looking for a term loan, a line of credit, equipment financing, or even a merchant cash advance, the right loan can be a lifeline for your business, helping you conquer that next big milestone with confidence.

How do Business Loans Work?

Obtaining a business loan follows a fairly straightforward process. First, you identify your financial needs and then approach a lender. They will evaluate your credit history, business plan, annual revenue, and potential profitability to determine your creditworthiness. If approved, you’ll receive the loan amount as a lump sum or a line of credit, depending on the loan type.

Repayment terms vary based on the loan agreement, typically involving monthly payments that include both the principal and accrued interest. The interest rate is influenced by factors like the loan type, your credit score, and the loan term.

Remember, a business loan is a legally binding commitment. Failure to meet the repayment terms can lead to severe consequences, such as damage to your credit score or even the loss of collateral if your loan is secured. It’s crucial to thoroughly understand your loan agreement and ensure that your business can comfortably handle the repayments. By making well-informed decisions about business loans, you can drive your business towards success and growth.

15 Types of Small Business Loans - Brad Sugars

15 Types of Small Business Loans

Now that we’ve explored the basics of business loans and how they work, let’s dive into the different types of loans available for small businesses. Funding options for qualified business owners include several options. Each is tailored to address specific financial needs and comes with its terms and conditions.

By understanding the unique features of each loan type, you can make an informed decision that aligns with your business goals and financial situation. Here are 15 types of business loans that you might want to consider.

1. Small Business Administration (SBA) Loans

Small Business Administration (SBA) loans are a popular choice for small business owners. They offer competitive terms and can be used for various purposes. It’s important to note that the SBA does not directly provide these loans. Instead, they collaborate with lenders to guarantee a portion of the loan, reducing risk for the lender.

This guarantee allows for larger loan amounts, lower interest rates, and longer repayment terms, which greatly benefit small businesses. There are different types of SBA-guaranteed loans available, including the 7(a) loan program for general business expenses, the 504 loan for property and equipment, and the microloan program for smaller needs.

2. Term Loans

Term loans are one of the most traditional forms of business loans. When we think of a ‘loan’, this is often what comes to mind. They involve borrowing a predetermined amount of money, which is then repaid over a set period, known as the ‘term’, with interest. The interest rate can be fixed or variable, depending on the terms of the loan. The repayment schedule is typically monthly, but some lenders may offer more flexible arrangements.

Term loans can be either ‘short-term’ or ‘long-term’. Short-term loans usually have terms of up to a year, while long-term loans can extend from a few years to as long as 25 years. Term loans are incredibly versatile and can be used for various purposes, including business expansion, purchasing equipment, or even as working capital.

3. Short-Term Loans

Short-term loans are similar to term loans but with a significantly shorter repayment period. As the name suggests, these loans are designed to be repaid in a short timeframe, usually less than a year, sometimes even just a few months. Because of the short repayment term, the application process is often quicker and the approval rates higher, making them an attractive option for businesses in need of fast access to capital. These loans can be used to cover various short-term financial needs, such as purchasing inventory, bridging cash flow gaps, or handling unexpected expenses.

4. Business Lines of Credit

A business line of credit works in a similar way to a personal credit card. It’s like a flexible loan that gives your business access to a specific amount of money. You can use this money for operational costs or any unexpected financial emergencies your company may face. The best part is that you only pay interest on the amount you withdraw, not the total available credit line. This flexibility makes business lines of credit an appealing option for managing changes in working capital throughout the year.

Keep in mind that lenders usually require businesses to demonstrate financial responsibility before approving a line of credit. As a result, newer businesses or those with unstable income streams may find it challenging to qualify for this type of loan.

5. Startup Business Loans

As entrepreneurs and new businesses embark on their exciting journey, they often face a common challenge: securing funds to start and scale operations. This is where startup business loans come in. These specialized loans are good options for business owners as they are designed to provide support to businesses in their initial stages without the need for a track record of profitability and cash flow typically required by traditional loans.

A business plan, the potential of your business idea, and your personal credit history are essential for getting a startup business loan. They can be used to cover various startup costs, including equipment purchases, commercial space rentals, marketing initiatives, and staff recruitment. Different types of startup business loans are available, such as SBA loan programs, business credit cards, and crowdfunding options.

6. Business Lines of Credit

Business lines of credit offer businesses a highly flexible financing option. It provides a predefined credit limit that can be utilized based on specific needs. Think of it as a safety net, always there to provide quick funds whenever you need them. Whether it’s for procuring inventory, managing payroll, or covering unexpected costs, this financing option has got you covered. The best part is that interest is only charged on the amount you use, not the total credit limit. It’s essentially a use-it-when-you-need-it system that gives you peace of mind.

You have the option to choose between secured and unsecured business lines of credit. Secured lines require collateral, while unsecured lines do not. However, keep in mind that unsecured lines often have higher interest rates due to increased risk for lenders. Repayment is also flexible, with only the monthly interest due, and the principal can be repaid at your convenience.

7. Equipment Financing Loans

Getting loan to finance acquire vital equipment, and ensure seamless operations is a common course of action for small businesses. Whether you require manufacturing machinery, company vehicles, or cutting-edge software, equipment loans encompass a diverse array of equipment types.

The loan amount typically corresponds to the equipment cost, while the repayment term aligns with its anticipated lifespan. One notable advantage is that the equipment itself serves as collateral, eliminating the need for additional assets. Moreover, since the lender can repossess the equipment in the event of default, these loans often feature lower interest rates compared to unsecured business loans.

8. Peer-to-Peer Lending

Peer-to-peer lending (P2P) is a groundbreaking and relatively new way to fund businesses. It allows businesses to borrow money directly from individuals or ‘peers’, cutting out the middleman like banks. P2P platforms act as marketplaces, connecting lenders (investors) with borrowers (businesses) and making the lending process smoother.

The interest rates are typically determined by the platform based on the credit risk of the business. P2P lending can be an appealing option to fund your business, especially if you find it challenging to qualify for traditional term loans due to strict eligibility criteria.

9. Merchant Cash Advances

Merchant Cash Advances (MCAs) are a great choice for businesses that handle a high volume of credit card transactions, like restaurants or retail stores. Unlike traditional loans, MCAs offer businesses a lump sum of cash in exchange for a percentage of future credit card sales.

Repayment usually occurs daily, with the lender deducting a fixed percentage from the business’s credit card sales. MCAs are renowned for their speedy approval and funding process, often providing businesses with the capital they need in just a few business days.

10. Microloans

Microloans are small, short-term loans offered to businesses that have limited access to traditional lending options. They are like a helping hand for start-ups or businesses in developing regions where banking services may be limited. These loans can be a lifeline, providing the much-needed capital to grow your small business. The loan amounts can range from just a few hundred dollars to as much as $50,000, with repayment terms that are more flexible than traditional loans. Small businesses find them attractive because they can be used for various purposes, such as purchasing equipment, inventory, or even for working capital.

11. Personal Loans

Did you know that personal loans can also be a great business funding option? Many business owners turn to personal loans, especially in the early stages of their venture or if their business doesn’t have a long history or a strong credit score to secure a traditional business loan. The best part is that personal loans for business are based on your personal credit score and financial history, so you have a higher chance of approval and more favorable terms if you have a strong personal credit profile.

12. Loans From Friends And Family

Loans from friends and family are a different kind of business financing option, with a personal touch. These loans allow business owners to reach out to their closest network for financial support. The benefits are clear – flexible repayment terms and low to zero interest rates. However, it’s important to maintain professionalism when borrowing from your network. Set clear terms, put everything in writing, and commit to timely repayments. This approach ensures that the relationship remains strong and trust is preserved.

13. Invoice Factoring

Invoice Factoring, also known as accounts receivable financing, is another convenient option for businesses to maintain a steady cash flow. This method involves selling your outstanding invoices to a factoring company at a discount. In return, you receive an immediate cash injection that can be used to meet operating expenses, purchase inventory, or fund growth initiatives. The factoring company then collects the payment directly from your customers. This method is particularly useful for businesses with long invoice cycles or those dealing with clients who tend to pay slowly. By leveraging invoice factoring, businesses can effectively turn their pending invoices into immediate cash, thereby bypassing the waiting period that could otherwise hinder their operations.

14. Invoice Financing

Invoice financing is a great option for businesses that want to improve their cash flow, especially when dealing with clients who pay late. With this type of financing, businesses can borrow against their outstanding invoices. Instead of waiting for customers to pay, business owners can get an advance of around 80-90% of the invoice value from a lender. Once customers pay their invoices, the business repays the lender, keeping the remaining balance minus a small fee for the service. Invoice financing is a valuable tool that helps businesses manage their cash flow effectively, covering operational costs and supporting growth without the stress of waiting for delayed payments.

15. Commercial Real Estate Loans

Commercial real estate loans are specifically designed to help businesses purchase, develop, or refinance commercial properties. These loans are usually secured against the property being financed and often have longer repayment terms, typically ranging from 15 to 30 years. They can be used to finance various properties, such as office buildings, retail spaces, industrial facilities, and rental properties.

Banks and credit unions, as well as private lenders, can offer commercial real estate loans. The interest rates, loan amount, and terms can vary based on factors like the borrower’s creditworthiness, property value and condition, and business performance. Choosing a commercial real estate loan can provide your with the capital needed to expand your business, renovate, or acquire new properties, ultimately contributing to your growth and success.

Business Loan Program Requirements - Brad Sugars

Business Loan Program Requirements

Before we get into the nitty-gritty of business loan program requirements, it’s important to acknowledge that each method we’ve discussed has its prerequisites. These requirements can vary widely depending on the type of loan, the lender’s criteria, and your business’s financial position. However, what remains consistent is the need to fully understand these conditions before you decide on a loan. By doing so, you can ensure that you’re making informed decisions that align with your business’s goals and capabilities. Now, let’s dive into some of the common requirements that lenders typically look for when providing business loans.

Time in Business

Years in business are a significant factor that carries significant weight in the decision-making process of lenders. This refers to the length of time your business has been operational and is often seen as a measure of your business’s stability and credibility. Lenders typically favor businesses that have been in operation for a longer time, as it suggests the business has withstood the test of time and has managed to remain viable.

The logic here is simple: a business that has survived for a couple of years is more likely to continue doing so, and therefore, represents a lesser risk to the lender. However, this doesn’t mean that you can’t secure a loan if you’re just a few months in business; it simply implies that they might need to meet additional criteria or explore alternative lending options.

Credit Score

Your personal and business credit scores are crucial in the lending decision. A high credit score demonstrates responsible credit management, indicating that you pose less risk to lenders. Personal credit scores range from 300 to 850, with a score of 700 or above generally considered good. On the other hand, business credit scores range from 0 to 100.

To enhance your chances of securing a business loan, it’s beneficial to maintain a clean credit history, pay your bills on time, and minimize your debt. That said, a bad credit score doesn’t automatically disqualify you from obtaining a loan, but it may impact the terms and interest rates offered. Even if your credit score is currently suboptimal, there are various strategies you can employ to improve it over time, increasing your chances of receiving favorable loan conditions.

Cash Flow

Cash flow is like the lifeblood of your business. It’s the money that comes in and goes out, keeping your operations running smoothly. When cash flow is positive, it means your business is thriving, with more resources to cover expenses, pay off debts, and invest in growth. On the flip side, negative cash flow can raise concerns for lenders, as it suggests that your business is spending more than it’s earning. It’s important to keep an eye on your cash flow to ensure s and repay loans.

Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio

The Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio (FCCR) is a metric that lenders often use to assess a company’s ability to meet its fixed charges or expenses, such as interest and lease expenses. This ratio is a measure of a business’s financial strength. It’s calculated by dividing the sum of earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and lease payments by the total interest expenses and lease payments.

A high FCCR is an indication that the business generates enough earnings to cover its fixed charges, making it a less risky proposition for lenders. On the other hand, a low FCCR might indicate financial instability, making the business a riskier prospect for loans. It’s important to note that different lenders might require different minimum FCCRs, depending on the nature of the loan and the level of risk they’re willing to accept.

Working Capital

Working capital is a crucial indicator of your business’s short-term financial health and operational efficiency. It is calculated as the difference between current assets (those that can be converted to cash within a year) and current liabilities (debts due within a year). A positive working capital indicates that your business has enough assets to cover its short-term liabilities, which is a good sign for lenders. It suggests that your business is effectively managing its debts and has the financial cushion to handle any short-term financial downturns or unexpected expenses. On the other hand, negative working capital may indicate potential financial struggles, which can make lenders cautious.


Collateral is another important factor that lenders consider when assessing your eligibility for a business loan. Collateral refers to assets that you promise as security for repayment of the loan. This could include property, equipment, inventory, or other valuable assets owned by your business. In the unfortunate event that you’re unable to repay the loan, the lender has the right to take possession of these assets to recover their losses. The value of your collateral for the loan should ideally match or exceed the loan amount you’re seeking. This gives lenders the confidence that they can recover the loan amount if repayment becomes a problem.

Moreover, offering collateral can potentially get you better terms on your loan, such as a lower interest rate or a larger loan amount, since the lender sees less risk. However, keep in mind that offering collateral also means you risk losing these assets if you fail to repay the loan, so it’s important to realistically assess your ability to repay before securing a loan with collateral. For businesses without significant assets, some lenders may accept personal collateral, such as a home or car, but this should be carefully considered due to the personal financial risk involved.

Application Process For Business Loan

If you decide to apply for a loan, the process may seem daunting at first. But with the right preparation, it can be a relatively straightforward journey. Understanding the steps involved and what lenders are looking for can significantly improve your odds of success. Here’s a simple guide to help navigate the business loan application process and secure a loan that fits your business needs.

Meet With a Lender

When you start the application process, the first step is to meet with a potential lender. This could be a traditional bank, a credit union, or even an alternative lender like an online business loan provider. Before scheduling a meeting, take some time to do your research and find out which lenders would be a good fit for your business. Consider factors like the type of loans they offer, their interest rates, and their requirements for borrowers.

To prepare for the meeting, gather all the necessary financial documents, including your business plan, financial statements, and any other documentation that demonstrates the profitability and financial stability of your business. Be ready to discuss your business in detail, including your current financial situation, your plans, and specifically, how you intend to use the loan to grow your business.

Provide Documentation

Providing comprehensive and accurate documentation is crucial in the loan application process. We understand that lenders need to thoroughly assess your business’s financial health and stability, and your documentation serves as the primary source of this information. You will be expected to provide documents like your business’s financial statements, tax returns, bank statements, and legal documents such as your business license and articles of incorporation. Additionally, a detailed business plan outlining your business model, market research, and financial projections will greatly strengthen your application.

For loans requiring collateral, you may also need to include asset documentation, such as property deeds or equipment invoices. Don’t worry, we’re here to help you organize these documents ahead of time to expedite the loan application process and demonstrate to lenders your commitment and professionalism.

Submit Application

Once you have all your documents in order and you’ve met with your potential lender, it’s time to submit your application. Make sure to double-check each document for accuracy and completeness before you hit that submit button. Most lenders offer an online submission process, but in some cases, physical submissions may still be required. Now comes the waiting game. Loan approval times can vary greatly depending on the lender and the type of loan.

Some lucky ones get approval in as little as 24 hours, while others may have to wait weeks or even months. During this period, it’s important to keep your business running smoothly. Lenders may conduct additional financial checks, so keeping your business in top shape can increase your chances of approval. Remember, patience is key. The right loan for your business is worth the wait.


Underwriting is a crucial step in the loan approval process, where potential lenders assess the risk associated with lending to your business. During this phase, underwriters carefully review all the information you’ve provided, including your business plan, financial statements, and credit reports. They scrutinize these documents to understand your business’s financial health, the viability of your business model, and your ability to repay the loan.

Underwriters also consider industry risk, evaluating the stability and prospects of your industry. They also assess the collateral you’ve offered, estimating its value and how easily it could be sold if needed.

Underwriting takes time, as it involves a thorough review of your business’s finances and operations. However, it is an essential step that protects both the lender and the borrower, ensuring that loans are issued responsibly.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Bank Loans

Like any form of financial decision, opting for a bank loan as a means to infuse capital into your business comes with its own set of pros and cons. Understanding these advantages and disadvantages before applying for a small business loan will empower you to make an informed decision, ensuring that your chosen loan aligns perfectly with your business strategies and objectives.


  • Access to Large Capital: Bank loans can provide a substantial amount of capital that might be difficult to gather otherwise. This can be especially beneficial for businesses looking to make significant investments or expansions.
  • Financial Planning: Loans have fixed repayment schedules which can aid in budgeting and financial planning. Knowing exactly what your monthly payments will be can help you manage your cash flow more effectively.
  • Affordable Interest Rates: Compared to other types of lending like credit cards or certain types of alternative lending, bank loans often come with lower interest rates.
  • Retaining Business Ownership: Unlike equity financing, where you have to give up a portion of your business ownership to investors, a bank loan allows you to retain full control of your business.
  • Building Credit: Regularly repaying a bank loan can significantly improve your business’s credit history. This can make it easier for your business to secure loans with more favorable terms in the future.


  • Debt Burden: Despite the growth potential, taking out a loan means you’re responsible for repaying a debt. This can put a financial strain on you, especially if your business’s revenue doesn’t increase as expected.
  • Collateral Risk: Many loans require collateral – assets that your lender can take possession of if you’re unable to repay the loan. If your loan defaults, you could be at risk of losing valuable business or personal assets.
  • Strict Eligibility Criteria: Banks often have strict requirements for loan approval. Newer businesses, those with poor credit history, or those operating in perceived high-risk industries may struggle to meet these criteria.
  • Complex Approval Process: Applying for a bank loan can be a lengthy and complicated process, involving a lot of paperwork and time. This can delay access to much-needed funds.
  • Impact on Credit Score: Failing to repay the loan or making late payments can hurt your business’s credit score, making it harder to secure loans in the future.


Can I use a personal loan for my business?

Yes, in theory, you can use a personal loan for your business. However, it’s generally not recommended for a few reasons. Firstly, if your business fails, you’re still personally responsible for repaying the loan. Also, using a personal loan for business purposes means you’re missing out on the opportunity to establish your business’s credit history. Lastly, personal loans might not provide sufficient funds for your business needs, especially if you’re planning significant investments or expansions. It’s generally more beneficial to explore business loans that are specifically designed for commercial purposes, offering terms and conditions that are better suited to your business requirements.

Can you have more than one business loan?

Yes, a business can have more than one business loan. However, it’s important to consider the implications carefully. The main factor to consider is your business’s ability to handle the debt. If your business is profitable and has a healthy cash flow, managing multiple loans can be feasible. Lenders will also consider your credit score and debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) before granting an additional loan. Having multiple loans can help you finance different aspects of your business, but it also increases your debt and risk. Always ensure that the potential growth from the loan outweighs the cost and risk associated with it.

What happens if my business cannot pay back a loan?

If you get a small business loan, but you’re unable to pay it back, the consequences can be severe. Initially, missing a payment or two can result in additional fees and hurt your business credit score. Later on, the loan may enter a state of default. Once a loan is in default, the entire loan balance typically becomes due immediately. If the loan was secured with collateral, the lender has the right to seize and sell those assets to recover their funds.

If the loan was unsecured, the lender could potentially take legal action to obtain repayment. In extreme cases, if the business is unable to meet its financial obligations, it may be forced into bankruptcy. It is always advisable to communicate with your lender at the first sign of financial trouble. They may be able to work with you to modify the loan terms, making repayment more manageable.

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